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He had no sympathy for people who wanted to buy cheap omnicef on-line antibiotics quiz pharmacology know how things worked order 300mg omnicef free shipping virus 43215, people who wanted to generic omnicef 300 mg without prescription antibiotic resistance webquest explore things, people who wanted to improve the systems they studied and dreamed about. His idea was to provide a no-frills computer which would come with all you needed to get going Osborne thought people were happiest when relieved of anxiety-producing choices, like which word-processing program to buy. Because the machine he wanted need only be "adequate," designing it should not be too hard a task. As usual, there was fear in the equation: Lee had an admittedly irrational fear of Adam Osbome; he guessed he identified Adam with the authority figures of his childhood. He had fulfilled, he thought, the technical requirements as well as the artistic ones in building the machine which was known as the Osborne 1. Critics would later say that the plastic-cased machine had an uncomfortably small five-inch screen, and note other small problems, but when the computer first came out praise was plentiful and the Osborne Computer was soon a multimillion dollar company. He still lived in the Spartan second-floor apartment renting for under two hundred a month. But perhaps due to age, some therapy sessions, and maturity, as well as his tangible success, he had grown in other ways. In his late thirties, he described himself as "still catching up, undergoing experiences you typically undergo in your early twenties. Which, in the middle of the microcomputer boom, was going through some rough times. But a debate was raging within the group as to the propriety of selling the software to anyone who cared to use it, or restricting it so that it would not benefit any military efforts. It was not clear that the military were clamoring to buy this software, which included a data base and communications applications more useful for small businesses than weapon-bearers. But these were hardened Berkeley radicals, and discussions like these were to be expected. The person worrying most about the military was Efrem Lipkin, the hacker blessed with computing wizardry and cursed with a loathing for the uses to which computers were put. Efrem was not charmed with the personal computer industry, which he considered "luxury toys for the middle class. Lipkin was a hacker purist; while he and Lee agreed on the spirit of Community Memory using computers to bring people together he could not accept certain things. And the original mythos of Community Memory, the ideal of machines of loving grace in a field watching over us, had been largely fulfilled in less than ten years, computers had been demystified. Computers were accepted as convivial tools, and the power of computers was accessible at thousands of retail stores, for those who could pay. Management bungling worse than at Processor Technology had made the firm the first of many major financial disasters in what would be called "The Great Computer Shakeout. Now, perhaps two thirds into the epic science-fiction novel, it was time to gather forces for a final spin into greatness. Sometime before Osborne Computer went bankrupt, Lee had been lamenting the opaque nature of the most recent computers, the lack of necessity that would lead people to actually go inside the chips and circuit boards and wire them. Now, millions of computers were being made, each one an invitation to program, to explore, to mythologize in machine language, to change the world. Computers were rolling off assembly lines as blank slates; a new generation of hackers would be seduced by the power to fill the slates; and the software they created would be presented to a world which saw computers in quite a different way than it had a decade before.
When encountering an every day object buy omnicef 300 mg amex oral antibiotics for acne during pregnancy, we tend to order omnicef 300 mg online virus quarantine definition think of it as no diferent from its sum total of properties: its “bundle of qualities best purchase for omnicef bacteria on tongue,” as the empiricist philosopher David Hume says. Here, the art object seems to be something altogether diferent from its qualities: an aesthetic substance or substrate that recedes into inac cessible depths. By contrast, the qualities of the artwork are by no means hidden, since otherwise it would be invisible. All of the pigment and color and visible form of Les Demoiselles is directly there before us and goes nowhere; 399 only the painting as a real object withdraws from any at tempt to exhaust or paraphrase it. All of the objects we encounter in non-aesthetic situa tions meet this description. The table, couch, and bottle before me now seem to be there directly, not withdrawn in the least. In fact, each of these sensual objects has a real object counterpart—the withdrawn table, couch, and chair—but we only notice this under very special circumstances, of which art is among the most im portant. It also has various sensual qualities that I can enumer ate in as long or short a list as I wish. We know this thanks to the historically important work of phenom enology in philosophy. This is easily proven by not 400 ing that we can look at everyday objects from all man ner of angles and distances, their qualities constantly shifting even though we continue to regard them all along as the very same objects. On this note, we return to our main theme, which we will be able to indicate only in outline. Dance, Charm, and the Fusion of Genres We recall the following words from the frst citation from Kant: “All forms of objects of the senses (the outer senses or, indirectly, the inner sense as well) is either shape or play…” Another way to put this would be as a distinction between those arts where the object is present immediately from the start, such as painting and sculpture. One can certainly linger long over these plastic art forms, continually discovering new aspects of these works as the time ticks away. But this is quite diferent from arts that must unfold in sequence: one thinks of cinema, dance, music, and theater, but also of literature. Kant now adds a second distinction: “if the latter, it is either play of shapes (in space, namely, 401 mimetic art and dance), or mere play of sensations (in time). While somewhat confusing given that “shape” was ini tially opposed to “play,” this yields the interesting result that dance—like theater—is described by Kant as not entirely unlike painting and sculpture, albeit with the diference that theater and dance unfold their shapes in the course of time. In other words, dance and theater could be considered, in a Kantian framework, as being moving sculptures of a sort. We move to the next portion of the passage: “The charm of colors or of the agreeable tone of an instrument may be added, but it is the design in the frst case [i. The proper object of aesthetic judgment in dance, then, is its composition: its choreog raphy, we could say. This entails further that choreography is not reducible to a specifc series of movements in space, 402 since such a series is purely sensual and directly acces sible to the viewer. The choreography that is the object of aesthetic judgment is something over and above the actual movement of the dancers. It is a certain style, a “spirit of the thing” that endures even if—within rea son—a certain number of changes in detail are made to the choreography itself. If it is hard to describe exactly what this is, it is for the very good reason that chore ography, like all the arts, cannot be undermined into its elements or overmined into its efects, so that the work of the critic as of the choreographer is to grapple with something that never takes on defnite form in any particular performance.
Jeff Stephenson Thirty-year-old martial arts veteran and hacker who was astounded that joining Sierra On-Line meant enrolling in Summer Camp cheap omnicef 300mg with amex antibiotics zyrtec. Jay Sullivan Maddeningly calm wizard-level programmer at Informatics who impressed Ken Williams by knowing the meaning of the word "any buy omnicef 300 mg amex zinc antimicrobial properties. Margot Tommervik With her husband Al purchase generic omnicef canada vyrus 985 c3, long-haired Margot parlayed her game show winnings into a magazine that deified the Apple Computer. Jim Warren Portly purveyor of "techno-gossip" at Homebrew, he was first editor of hippie-styled Dr. Stephen "Woz" Wozniak Openhearted, technologically daring hardware hacker from San Jose suburbs, Woz built the Apple Computer for the pleasure of himself and friends. If you were like the people whom Peter Samson was coming to know and befriend in this, his freshman year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the winter of 1958-59, no explanation would be required. Wandering around the labyrinth of laboratories and storerooms, searching for the secrets of telephone switching in machine rooms, tracing paths of wires or relays in subterranean steam tunnels. And then, if there was no one to physically bar access to whatever was making that intriguing noise, to touch the machine, start flicking switches and noting responses, and eventually to loosen a screw, unhook a template, jiggle some diodes and tweak a few connections. Peter Samson and his friends had grown up with a specific relationship to the world, wherein things had meaning only if you found out how they worked. This made him a "Cambridge urchin," one of dozens of science-crazy high schoolers in the region who were drawn, as if by gravitational pull, to the Cambridge campus. He had even tried to rig up his own computer with discarded parts of old pinball machines: they were the best source of logic elements he could find. Logic elements: the term seems to encapsulate what drew Peter Samson, son of a mill machinery repairman, to electronics. When you grow up with an insatiable curiosity as to how things work, the delight you find upon discovering something as elegant as circuit logic, where all connections have to complete their loops, is profoundly thrilling. No one was protecting them: the room was staffed only by day, when a select group who had attained official clearance were privileged enough to submit long manila cards to operators who would then use these machines to punch holes in them according to what data the privileged ones wanted entered on the cards. A hole in the card would represent some instruction to the computer, telling it to put a piece of data somewhere, or perform a function on a piece of data, or move a piece of data from one place to another. An entire stack of these cards made one computer program, a program being a series of instructions which yield some expected result, just as the instructions in a recipe, when precisely followed, lead to a cake. All these people in charge of punching cards, feeding them into readers, and pressing buttons and switches on the machine were what was commonly called a Priesthood, and those privileged enough to submit data to those most holy priests were the official acolytes. Acolyte: Oh machine, would you accept my offer of information so you may run my program and perhaps give me a computation? This was something Samson knew, and of course it frustrated the hell out of Samson, who wanted to get at the damn machine. Not only could it punch cards, but it could also read cards, sort them, and print them on listings. Of course, using them would be no picnic: one needed to actually wire up what was called a plug board, a two-inch-by-two-inch plastic square with a mass of holes in it. It was a casual, unthinking step into a science-fiction future, but that was typical of the way that an odd subculture was pulling itself up by its bootstraps and growing to underground prominence to become a culture that would be the impolite, unsanctioned soul of computerdom. The intended effect of the speech was to create that horrid feeling in the back of the collective freshman throat that signaled unprecedented dread. Now each of them had a person to the right and a person to the left who was just as smart. To these youngsters, classmates were perceived in a sort of friendly haze: maybe they would be of assistance in the consuming quest to find out how things worked, and then to master them. There were enough obstacles to learning already why bother with stupid things like brown-nosing teachers and striving for grades? All the campus organizations special-interest groups, fraternities, and such set up booths in a large gymnasium to try to recruit new members.
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It should be no surprise buy discount omnicef bacteria 3 types smear, then buy omnicef 300mg overnight delivery antibiotic xan, that France is home to discount omnicef 300 mg line antibiotic 83 3147 the three largest inter national voucher companies – Chèque Déjeuner, Accor Services and Sodexho Pass – and also a smaller company called Natexis Intertitres. This number increased in 1992 when the Ministry of Finance extended voucher privileges to its own civil servants. Only 7 per cent of French employees take a packed lunch, in stark contrast to Romanians in the previous case study. About 28 per cent eat in company canteens, 30 per cent eat at home, and over 35 per cent leave their place of work, according to a Coach Omnium study (Eurostaf, 2001). Of those who leave work, 82 per cent eat at sit-down restaurants and 18 per cent buy prepared food from a bakery or fast-food shop. So there is some agreement that voucher use can lead to better health because of a healthy food infrastructure. Employers wanted to contribute to their employees’ lunches, and in the 1960s there were only two ways: the canteen, which was only possible for major companies (because of the cost and infrastructure) and which was reserved for people at head office, a socially unfair solution; or cash, which left it uncertain that employees were using the money for lunch. Once the French Government adopted the voucher system, studies showed that dedicating funds by way of vouchers had social as well as economic impacts. It is much more difficult to take into account the induced effects, especially the impact on health and productivity. Practical advice for implementation France represents a mature voucher system, with strong commitment from the Government, employers and employees, coupled with an extensive restaurant and food sector. Union/employee perspective Over 80 per cent of French workers strongly value meal vouchers. France has established the National Meal Voucher Commission (Commission Nationale des Titres Restaurant). The Commission has 22 members, all unpaid, who represent employer and union organizations. The Commission is particularly representative of restaurant unions and voucher issuers. The following unions support the voucher system by their action as members of the Commission Nationale des Titres Restaurant. Positions are taken in that commission only when a consensus among the different parties emerges. The commission’s objective is to defend the development of the meal vouchers system. Above this, contributions are considered employment income subject to tax for both employee and employer. Lower-paid staff are given preference over higher-paid staff in voucher distribution, if availability is limited. Voucher physical characteristics Vouchers in the United Kingdom are paper, although recently some companies have requested smart cards. The tax exemption set in 1958, 15 pence, which was once enough to buy a proper meal, has never been increased; and as a result, there are few participants in the British voucher scheme. Several larger companies that participate have a cafeteria at the corporate headquarters but not at smaller branch locations. This raises concerns of business equity, where larger firms with canteens receive preferential tax treatment. Today, the British voucher scheme hobbles along, driven not by pure economics but intangible benefits, such as improved morale and hiring enticements. With a lack of a realistic tax exemption in line with inflation, this rate slowly dropped to around 1 per cent by the early 1990s, when there were a quarter of a million users. A 2004 survey by Abbey National, a British bank, found that 70 per cent of British officer workers regularly eat at their desks (Lyons and Moller, 2002). The 2004 Eurest lunchtime report found that the British lunch hour is now down to 27 minutes on average (Eurest, 2004).
Taking these two factors into account buy cheap omnicef 300mg line antibiotics safe for dogs, most survey research uses sample sizes that range from about 100 to 300 mg omnicef with visa antibiotics for bladder infection during pregnancy about 1 buy 300mg omnicef with amex antibiotics for acne on back,000. One part of the answer is that a statistic based on a larger sample will tend to be closer to the population value and that this can be characterized mathematically. Imagine, for example, that in a sample of registered voters, exactly 50% say they intend to vote for the incumbent. If there are 100 voters in this sample, then there is a 95% chance that the true percentage in the population is between 40 and 60. But if there are 1,000 voters in the sample, then there is a 95% chance that the true percentage in the population is between 47 and 53. Although this “95% confidence interval” continues to shrink as the sample size increases, it does so at a slower rate. For example, if there are 2,000 voters in the sample, then this only reduces the 95% confidence interval to 48 to 52. In many situations, the small increase in confidence beyond a sample size of 1,000 is not considered to be worth the additional time, effort, and money. Another part of the answer—and perhaps the more surprising part—is that confidence intervals depend only on the size of the sample and not on the size of the population. So a sample of 1,000 would produce a 95% confidence interval of 47 to 53 regardless of whether the population size was a hundred thousand, a million, or a hundred million. Probability sampling was developed in large part to address the issue of sampling bias. Sampling bias occurs when a sample is selected in such a way that it is not representative of the entire population and therefore produces inaccurate results. This was the reason that the Literary Digest straw poll was so far of in its prediction of the 1936 presidential election. The mailing lists used came largely from telephone directories and lists of registered automobile owners, which overrepresented wealthier people, who were more likely to vote for Landon. Gallup was successful because he knew about this bias and found ways to sample less wealthy people as well. There is one form of sampling bias that even careful random sampling is subject to. It is almost never the case that everyone selected for the sample actually responds to the survey. Some may have died or moved away, and others may decline to Chapter 9 195 participate because they are too busy, are not interested in the survey topic, or do not participate in surveys on principle. If these survey nonresponders difer from survey responders in systematic ways, then this can produce nonresponse bias. For example, in a mail survey on alcohol consumption, researcher Vivienne Lahaut and colleagues found that only about half the sample responded after the initial contact and two follow-up reminders (Lahaut, Jansen, van de Mheen, & Garretsen, 2002). So to test for nonresponse bias, the researchers later made unannounced visits to the homes of a subset of the nonresponders—coming back up to fve times if they did not fnd them at home. They found that the original nonresponders included an especially high proportion of abstainers (nondrinkers), which meant that their estimates of alcohol consumption based only on the original responders were too high. Although there are methods for statistically correcting for nonresponse bias, they are based on assumptions about the nonresponders—for example, that they are more similar to late responders than to early responders—which may not be correct. For this reason, the best approach to minimizing nonresponse bias is to minimize the number of nonresponders—that is, to maximize the response rate. There is a large research literature on the factors that afect survey response rates (Groves et al. In general, in-person interviews have the highest response rates, followed by telephone surveys, and then mail and Internet surveys.